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发现迄今已知最热系外行星大气层中含有稀土金

发布时间:2019-05-30 15:02编辑:教育浏览(115)

      KELT-9b是迄今为止已知最热的系外行星,来自伯尔尼大学和日内瓦大学的一个联合天文学家小组在其大气中发现了铁和钛气体特征。现在,这些研究人员已经能够检测到微量的汽化钠、镁、铬以及稀土金属钪和钇。系外行星是太阳系外的行星,围绕太阳以外的恒星运行。自90年代中期发现第一颗系外行星以来,已经发现了3000多颗系外行星。与我们太阳系的行星相比,这些行星中许多都是极端的:

      炽热气态巨行星的轨道极其接近主恒星,有时周期不到几天。这样的行星在太阳系中并不存在,它们的存在已经推翻了关于行星如何以及为什么会形成的预测。在过去的20年里,来自世界各地的天文学家一直在努力了解这些行星的来源、构成以及它们的气候。KELT-9是天鹅座中一颗距离地球650光年的恒星。它的系外行星kelt - 9b是这些所谓热木星中最极端的一个,因为它的轨道非常接近它恒星,恒星几乎是太阳的两倍热。因此,大气温度达到4000℃左右。

      在这样的高温下,所有元素几乎完全蒸发,分子被分解成组成它们的原子——就像在恒星的外层一样。这意味着大气中没有云或气溶胶,天空是清澈的,对恒星发出的光来说,大部分是透明的。构成大气气体原子吸收光谱中特定颜色的光,而每个原子都有其吸收颜色的独特“指纹”。这些指纹可以用安装在大型望远镜上的灵敏光谱仪测量,这使得天文学家能够辨别出许多光年之外行星大气层的化学成分。

      伯尔尼大学空间与宜居性中心(CSH)主任兼教授、国家行星研究中心成员Kevin Heng说:伯尔尼大学和日内瓦大学一组研究人员合作使用了这项技术,并做出了一个有趣的发现:使用位于拉帕尔马岛意大利国家望远镜上的HARPS-North摄谱仪,在kelt - 9b的高温大气中发现了铁和钛原子。该小组在去年夏天第二次观测了KELT-9系统,目的是确认他们以前的探测结果,但也继续寻找数据中可能存在的其他元素。研究包括73个原子,其中包括一些所谓的稀土金属,这些物质在地球上不太常见,但用于先进的材料和设备。

      第一作者、伯尔尼CSH和日内瓦天文台的博士后延斯•霍伊梅克(Jens Hoeijmakers)表示:我们的团队预测,这颗行星的光谱很可能是一个宝库,在那里可以探测到许多以前从未在任何其他行星的大气层中观察到的物种。这项研究现已发表在《天文学与天体物理学》(Astronomy & Astrophysics)上。经过仔细分析,研究人员确实在这颗行星的光谱中发现了汽化钠、镁、铬以及稀土金属钪和钇的强烈信号,后三种物质以前从未在系外行星大气层中被强有力地探测到。

      研究小组还对这些数据进行了进一步的解释,并能够利用这些信号来估计这些原子在行星大气中的吸收高度。更重要的是,研究人员还对高空大气中强劲的全球风模式有了更多了解,这种风把物质从一个半球吹到另一个半球。随着进一步的观察,未来很有可能在这颗行星的大气层中使用同样的技术发现更多元素,或许在其他被加热到类似高温的行星上也能发现。很有可能有一天,我们会使用今天正在使用的技术,在一颗系外行星上发现所谓的生物特征,即生命迹象。最终,想用我们的研究来探究太阳系的起源和发展,以及生命的起源。

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      \u7b2c\u4e00\u4f5c\u8005\u3001\u4f2f\u5c14\u5c3cCSH\u548c\u65e5\u5185\u74e6\u5929\u6587\u53f0\u7684\u535a\u58eb\u540e\u5ef6\u65af\u2022\u970d\u4f0a\u6885\u514b(Jens Hoeijmakers)\u8868\u793a\uff1a\u6211\u4eec\u7684\u56e2\u961f\u9884\u6d4b\uff0c\u8fd9\u9897\u884c\u661f\u7684\u5149\u8c31\u5f88\u53ef\u80fd\u662f\u4e00\u4e2a\u5b9d\u5e93\uff0c\u5728\u90a3\u91cc\u53ef\u4ee5\u63a2\u6d4b\u5230\u8bb8\u591a\u4ee5\u524d\u4ece\u672a\u5728\u4efb\u4f55\u5176\u4ed6\u884c\u661f\u7684\u5927\u6c14\u5c42\u4e2d\u89c2\u5bdf\u5230\u7684\u7269\u79cd\u3002\u8fd9\u9879\u7814\u7a76\u73b0\u5df2\u53d1\u8868\u5728\u300a\u5929\u6587\u5b66\u4e0e\u5929\u4f53\u7269\u7406\u5b66\u300b(Astronomy & Astrophysics)\u4e0a\u3002\u7ecf\u8fc7\u4ed4\u7ec6\u5206\u6790\uff0c\u7814\u7a76\u4eba\u5458\u786e\u5b9e\u5728\u8fd9\u9897\u884c\u661f\u7684\u5149\u8c31\u4e2d\u53d1\u73b0\u4e86\u6c7d\u5316\u94a0\u3001\u9541\u3001\u94ec\u4ee5\u53ca\u7a00\u571f\u91d1\u5c5e\u94aa\u548c\u9487\u7684\u5f3a\u70c8\u4fe1\u53f7\uff0c\u540e\u4e09\u79cd\u7269\u8d28\u4ee5\u524d\u4ece\u672a\u5728\u7cfb\u5916\u884c\u661f\u5927\u6c14\u5c42\u4e2d\u88ab\u5f3a\u6709\u529b\u5730\u63a2\u6d4b\u5230\u3002

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