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杜甫极力推崇并美化诸葛亮其原因其实是这样

发布时间:2019-07-09 10:28编辑:文学专栏浏览(200)

      唐朝诗人杜甫极力推崇诸葛亮,这使得他的部分诗歌中的诸葛亮形象,在一定程度上脱离了历史原貌,呈现出较为明显的儒家圣贤色彩。诸葛亮为蜀汉事业鞠躬尽瘁死而后已,杜甫对这种精神是深为感动和敬仰的。他在一些诗歌中,感慨诸葛亮谋划奇策、开济两朝,最终却“出师未捷身先死,长使英雄泪满襟”,称赞诸葛亮是伯仲于伊吕、“大名垂宇宙”的“宗臣”。如其在《蜀相》一诗中就写道:丞相祠堂何处寻?锦官城外柏森森。映阶碧草自春色,隔叶黄鹂空好音。三顾频烦天下计,两朝开济老臣心。出师未捷身先死,长使英雄泪满襟。

      该诗是杜甫定居成都草堂后,在第二年游览成都武侯祠时创作的一首咏史诗。唐汝询说:“盖平时深慕孔明,故至蜀即问其庙之所在。”诗的前四句写武侯祠所处的地理位置及景色状况,从第五句起转入抒怀。“三顾频烦天下计”写刘备曾多次前往隆中邀请诸葛亮出山并共同商讨一统天下的策略;“两朝开济老臣心”,指诸葛亮先是辅佐刘备开创基业,后又受遗托孤辅助刘禅复兴蜀汉,一生尽忠报主,鞠躬尽瘁。结尾二句感叹诸葛亮出师未捷身先死,引发了千载以来事业未竟英雄们的深切共鸣。

      周汝昌先生说,杜甫“心念武侯,高山仰止,也正是寄希望于当世的良相之才,他之所怀者大,所感者深,以是之故,天下后世,凡读他此篇的,无不流涕。”诗歌高度概括了诸葛亮的不朽功业,称赞诸葛亮是开济两朝的“老臣”,字里行间寄寓着自己感物思人的情怀,用语极其凝练,感情极为深沉。再如《咏怀古迹(其五)》:诸葛大名垂宇宙,宗臣遗像肃清高。三分割据纡筹策,万古云霄一羽毛。伯仲之间见伊吕,指挥若定失萧曹。运移汉祚终难复,志决身歼军务劳。

      “宇”是上下四方,“宙”是古往今来,“诸葛大名垂宇宙”,将时间与空间并说,傅经顺先生认为,这“给人以‘名满寰宇,万世不朽’的具体形象之感”。“三分割据纡筹策,万古云霄一羽毛”一句,意谓谋划奇策、使蜀汉与魏吴鼎足而立的蜀相诸葛亮,犹如高翔于苍穹的鸾凤,让人肃然起敬。诗中的“伊吕”是指商代的伊尹和周代的吕尚,二人皆为辅佐贤主开国的名相。“伯仲之间见伊吕”称赞诸葛亮跟这些古代名相难分高下;“指挥若定失萧曹”一句,意谓功高盖世的西汉宗臣萧何、曹参,比之诸葛亮,也未免有不及之处。诸葛亮好比是万古云霄间的鸾凤,是大名垂宇宙的“宗臣”。这几句称颂之语堪称唐代诗人对诸葛亮的最高评价,傅经顺先生就认为,“处处都是抬高了诸葛亮”。

      此外,杜甫的《八阵图》还写道诸葛亮“功盖三分国,名成八阵图”,《晚登瀼上堂》写道自己“凄其望吕葛,不复梦周孔”,《赠左仆射郑国公严公武》写道“诸葛蜀人爱”,等等,都表现出对蜀相诸葛亮的敬仰和歌赞之意。可以想见的是,在杜甫的心目中,诸葛亮不仅仅是一位老臣,更是一位与伊吕不相伯仲的的“宗臣”。杜甫极力推崇并美化诸葛亮,其原因不难理解。首先,杜甫的这些诗歌多数作于其晚年时期。晚年的杜甫经历了安史之乱,亲眼目睹了战争中的烧杀屠掠和贫民百姓的流离失所,见证了国家的危难和整个唐王朝的由盛转衰。公元759年,诗人弃官,历经磨难到达四川成都,在这里居住、漂泊了八、九年时间。

      成都地区是昔日蜀汉王朝的所在地,也是蜀相诸葛亮崇拜的发祥地,自魏晋南北朝时期开始,民间就流传着众多关于诸葛亮的故事,并且诸葛亮祠庙、遗迹众多。杜甫久居此地,耳濡目染,自然会与蜀地人民一道,敬仰、追怀蜀相诸葛亮,并借助诗歌创作将这种情感记录了下来。其次,唐代统治者虽然采用科举制进用人才,但这并不意味着任何一位中下层知识分子都能如愿达到自己的人生理想。达官贵族阶层子弟无论何时总拥有难以比拟的先天优势,如永淳元年魏玄同就指出:“今贵戚子弟一皆早仕。”中下层知识分子在仕进的道路上,坎坷与磨难依然很多,杜甫就是其中的一位。杜甫仕途坎坷、屡遭磨难的不幸遭遇,使他对诸葛亮能够得遇明主、施展个人抱负和才华的人生经历欣羡不已,他对诸葛亮与刘备鱼水相契的感叹和咏歌,其实都是这种情感的真实流露。

      第三,经历过战乱的杜甫,对天下太平是满怀期盼的,而诸葛亮终其一生志在兴复和平定天下的举动,也深深地感染了诗人杜甫。尤其是诸葛亮壮志未酬中途先殁的悲剧结局格外地让杜甫唏嘘感慨,情感上能够激起共鸣,诗人自然会付诸笔端。《蜀相》诗中“出师未捷身先死,长使英雄泪满襟”的表述,正是这种共通情感使然。诸葛亮的悲剧结局,陈寿在《诸葛亮传》中归结为“盖天命有归,不可以智力争也”,换言之,即诸葛亮的悲剧结局,是生不逢时,天意如此。杜甫的诗往往以此为契入点,先铺陈诸葛亮的卓越才能或盖世功业,然后抒发情志,慨叹时命不济,其实质是以诸葛亮自况,借他人酒杯浇自己块垒。

      杜甫的诸葛亮题材诗,在对诸葛亮进行咏怀和歌赞的同时,融入了自己对人生和社会的思考和感悟,从而大大提升了诸葛亮的形象。作为生活在唐王朝由盛转衰时期的伟大诗人,杜甫对诸葛亮的咏歌和定位也深深影响了此后很多文人。后来歌赞诸葛亮的诗作逐渐增多,就是很好的例证。

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    转载请注明来源:杜甫极力推崇并美化诸葛亮其原因其实是这样